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 C++ Tutorials  >  Arrays  >  One Dimensional Arrays
 

An array is a collection of elements of the same data type are reference by a common name. Each element of an array can be referred to by an array name and a subscript or index. Arrays can be one-dimentional or two-dimentional.

Declaring One-dimentional Arrays

The general form used to declare a single-dimensional array is:

type var-name[size];

Like other variables an array must be explicitly defined so that the compiler can allocate memory for the array. In the above declaration, the keyword type defines the data type of the array, which is the data type of each element in the array--int, float, char and size defines the number of elements the array can hold.

An example of array declartion is:

char cArr[10];

The array subscript starts from zero. Therefore, cArr[2] would refer to the third element in the array cArr where 2 is the array subscript.

The following program illustrates the usage of an array:

//Program 4.1
//This program performs input-output operations on arrays
#include<iostream.h>
void main()
{
int iArr[10]; //Array of size 10 is defined
int i,j;
cout<<"Input the elements of the array:"<<endl;
for(i=0; i<10; i++) //As last subscript is 9
{
cin>>iArr[i]; //i is called the array subscript
}
cout<<"The elements stored in the array are:"<<endl;
for(j=0; j<10; j++)
cout<<iArr[j]<<""; //Displays the elements of the array
}


Program 4.1 illustrates the input and output operations using an array. Array iArr is declared to be of type int and size 10. A maximum of 10 numbers can be stored in the array and the individual elements are referenced using the array subscript.

The sample output of Program 4.1 is:

Input the elements of the array:
1
2
7
9
13
16
3
8
100
21

The elements stored in the array are:
1 2 7 9 13 16 3 8 100 21

Figure 4.1 illustrates the storage of elements in the array.

1
2
7
9
13
16
3
8
100
21
 --> iArr[0]
 --> iArr[1]
 --> iArr[2]
 --> iArr[3]
 --> iArr[4]
 --> iArr[5]
 --> iArr[6]
 --> iArr[7]
 --> iArr[8]
 --> iArr[9]

Figure 4.1 Array Elements

 

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